Progesterone: The Essential Hormone and its Effects in Women

Progesterone is a hormone predominantly produced in the ovaries following ovulation each month. It's a crucial part of the menstrual cycle and maintenance of pregnancy. But what happens when progesterone levels fluctuate? And what symptoms might you experience if your progesterone levels are too high or too low? In this blog post, we delve into the impacts of progesterone on women's health, touching on both the beneficial and potential problematic effects.

What is Progesterone?

Progesterone is known as the "pregnancy hormone" because of its pivotal role in fertility and sustaining pregnancy. It prepares the endometrium - the lining of the uterus - for possible implantation by a fertilized egg. Without progesterone, the endometrium would shed, leading to menstruation.

Moreover, progesterone plays a significant role in brain function and may impact mood, cognition, physical performance and overall mental health. Its far-reaching effects emphasize the importance of maintaining balance, as either high or low progesterone levels can lead to various symptoms.

Symptoms of High Progesterone

While progesterone is essential, an excessive amount of this hormone can cause symptoms such as:

  • Tenderness in the breasts: Women with high progesterone levels may notice their breasts are tender or painful.
  • Mood changes: Progesterone can affect neurotransmitters in the brain such as serotonin, potentially leading to mood swings, anxiety, or depression.
  • Fatigue: High levels of progesterone can make women feel exceptionally tired or fatigued.
  • Headaches or migraines: Some women may experience these symptoms due to changes in their hormones.
  • Changes in libido: Some women may notice a decrease in their sexual desire.
  • Bloating: High progesterone levels can slow down the gastrointestinal tract, leading to bloating.
  • Menstrual irregularities: These can include irregular periods, spotting, and changes in menstrual flow.

Symptoms of Low Progesterone

On the flip side, having too little progesterone can also impact a woman's health. Symptoms of low progesterone may include:

  • Menstrual irregularities: Women with low progesterone might have irregular periods, spotting, or may even miss their periods entirely.
  • Headaches or migraines: As with high progesterone, fluctuations in progesterone can also cause headaches or migraines.
  • Mood changes: Low levels of progesterone can lead to mood swings, anxiety, or depression.
  • Low libido: Just like high progesterone, low progesterone can also decrease sexual desire.
  • Weight gain: Some women may gain weight due to low progesterone.
  • Hot flashes: These are common symptoms of low progesterone and may also be a sign of perimenopause or menopause.
  • Infertility: Since progesterone is necessary for the implantation and growth of a fertilized egg, low levels can lead to infertility or miscarriage. 

What impact does progesterone have on female athletes?

Progesterone has significant impacts on female athletes, influencing their physical performance, recovery, and injury risk. These effects are primarily due to the hormone's role in the menstrual cycle and its interactions with other hormones, particularly estrogen.

  1. Physical Performance:

Energy Metabolism: High levels of progesterone, typically in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, can alter energy substrate utilization. More specifically, it promotes the use of fat as an energy source over glucose. While this may sound beneficial for endurance, it's worth noting that fat metabolism is a slower process than glucose metabolism. This shift might affect high-intensity efforts, where the body usually relies on glucose for quick energy.

Body Temperature: Progesterone can slightly raise the core body temperature, which may impact thermoregulation during exercise, especially in hot environments or prolonged, strenuous exercise.

Respiratory Effects: Progesterone can stimulate ventilation, improving the body's oxygen-carrying capacity. However, some research suggests this effect might contribute to a sensation of breathlessness in some athletes during high-intensity exercise.

  1. Recovery and Injury Risk:

Muscle Recovery: Progesterone can interact with muscle repair and growth processes. While research is ongoing, some studies suggest that elevated progesterone levels may slow muscle recovery following exercise-induced damage.

Bone Health: Progesterone, along with estrogen, plays a vital role in maintaining bone health. Insufficient levels of these hormones can lead to an increased risk of osteoporosis, stress fractures, and other bone-related injuries, a concern for female athletes with irregular menstrual cycles or amenorrhea.

Ligament and Tendon Injuries: Some evidence suggests that high progesterone levels may affect the strength and stability of ligaments and tendons, possibly increasing the risk of injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears.

  1. Psychological Aspects:

Progesterone's effect on mood and cognition may indirectly impact athletic performance. Some athletes report variations in concentration, motivation, and mood across their menstrual cycle, which may affect their training and performance.

It's important to note that individual responses to hormonal fluctuations vary greatly. The menstrual cycle's influence on athletic performance is a growing field of study. Athletes and coaches are encouraged to consider menstrual cycle tracking and individualized training approaches to optimize performance and recovery based on these hormonal changes.

As always, any concerns or issues should be discussed with a healthcare provider or sports medicine professional to ensure optimal health and performance.


In conclusion, progesterone is a fundamental hormone in women's health, affecting a range of functions from menstrual cycles to mood and beyond. Whether your progesterone levels are high or low, it's important to remember that any persistent symptoms warrant a discussion with your healthcare provider. They can provide a proper diagnosis and develop a treatment plan to help rebalance your hormones and alleviate your symptoms.

Always consult with your healthcare provider if you are experiencing any new or concerning symptoms.

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